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史上最全的ASP.NET MVC路由配置

来源:zeusro 发布时间:2016-06-03 阅读次数:

先说一下基本的路由规则原则。基本的路由规则是从特殊到一般排列,也就是最特殊(非主流)的规则在最前面,最一般(万金油)的规则排在最后。这是因为匹配路由规则也是照着这个顺序的。如果写反了,那么即便你路由规则写对了那照样坐等404.

XD 首先说URL的构造。 其实这个也谈不上构造,只是语法特性吧。

URL构造

命名参数规范+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute(name: "Default",url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}", defaults: new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } );

构造路由然后添加

Route myRoute = new Route("{controller}/{action}", new MvcRouteHandler());
routes.Add("MyRoute", myRoute);

直接方法重载+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema", "Shop/{action}", new { controller = "Home" });

  个人觉得第一种比较易懂,第二种方便调试,第三种写起来比较效率吧。各取所需吧。本文行文偏向于第三种。

路由规则

 1.默认路由(MVC自带)

routes.MapRoute(
"Default", // 路由名称
"{controller}/{action}/{id}", // 带有参数的 URL
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } // 参数默认值 (UrlParameter.Optional-可选的意思) );

2.静态URL段

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema2", "Shop/OldAction", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" });
 
routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema", "Shop/{action}", new { controller = "Home" });
routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema2", "Shop/OldAction.js",
 new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" });

 没有占位符路由就是现成的写死的。

比如这样写然后去访问http://localhost:XXX/Shop/OldAction.js,response也是完全没问题的。 controller , action , area这三个保留字就别设静态变量里面了。

3.自定义常规变量URL段(好吧这翻译暴露智商了)

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute2", "{controller}/{action}/{id}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = "DefaultId" });

这种情况如果访问 /Home/Index 的话,因为第三段(id)没有值,根据路由规则这个参数会被设为DefaultId

这个用viewbag给title赋值就能很明显看出

ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"];

图不贴了,结果是标题显示为DefaultId。 注意要在控制器里面赋值,在视图赋值没法编译的。

4.再述默认路由

然后再回到默认路由。 UrlParameter.Optional这个叫可选URL段.路由里没有这个参数的话id为null。 照原文大致说法,这个可选URL段能用来实现一个关注点的分离。刚才在路由里直接设定参数默认值其实不是很好。照我的理解,实际参数是用户发来的,我们做的只是定义形式参数名。但是,如果硬要给参数赋默认值的话,建议用语法糖写到action参数里面。比如:

public ActionResult Index(string id = "abcd"){ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"];return View();}

5.可变长度路由。

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional });

在这里id和最后一段都是可变的,所以 /Home/Index/dabdafdaf 等效于 /Home/Index//abcdefdjldfiaeahfoeiho 等效于 /Home/Index/All/Delete/Perm/.....

6.跨命名空间路由

 这个提醒一下记得引用命名空间,开启IIS网站不然就是404。这个非常非主流,不建议瞎搞。

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute","{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers", "UrlsAndRoutes.Controllers" });

但是这样写的话数组排名不分先后的,如果有多个匹配的路由会报错。 然后作者提出了一种改进写法。

routes.MapRoute("AddContollerRoute","Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" });
 
routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers" });

 这样第一个URL段不是Home的都交给第二个处理 最后还可以设定这个路由找不到的话就不给后面的路由留后路啦,也就不再往下找啦。

Route myRoute = routes.MapRoute("AddContollerRoute",
"Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" });  myRoute.DataTokens["UseNamespaceFallback"] = false;

7.正则表达式匹配路由

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",
 new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },
 new { controller = "^H.*"},
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers"});

 约束多个URL

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },
new { controller = "^H.*", action = "^Index$|^About$"},
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers"});

8.指定请求方法

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",
 
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },
 
new { controller = "^H.*", action = "Index|About", httpMethod = new HttpMethodConstraint("GET") },
 
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers" });

9. WebForm支持

routes.MapPageRoute("", "", "~/Default.aspx");
 
 routes.MapPageRoute("list", "Items/{action}", "~/Items/list.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "action", "all" } });
 
 routes.MapPageRoute("show", "Show/{action}", "~/show.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "action", "all" } });
 
 routes.MapPageRoute("edit", "Edit/{id}", "~/edit.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "id", "1" } }, new RouteValueDictionary { { "id", @"\d+" } });

 具体的可以看

使用Asp.Net4新特性路由创建WebForm应用

或者官方msdn

10.MVC5的RouteAttribute

首先要在路由注册方法那里

//启用路由特性映射
routes.MapMvcAttributeRoutes();

 这样

[Route("Login")]

 route特性才有效.该特性有好几个重载.还有路由约束啊,顺序啊,路由名之类的.

其他的还有路由前缀,路由默认值

[RoutePrefix("reviews")]<br>[Route("{action=index}")]<br>public class ReviewsController : Controller<br>{<br>}

 路由构造

// eg: /users/5
[Route("users/{id:int}"]
public ActionResult GetUserById(int id) { ... }
 
// eg: users/ken
[Route("users/{name}"]
public ActionResult GetUserByName(string name) { ... }

 参数限制

// eg: /users/5
// but not /users/10000000000 because it is larger than int.MaxValue,
// and not /users/0 because of the min(1) constraint.
[Route("users/{id:int:min(1)}")]
public ActionResult GetUserById(int id) { ... }
Constraint Description Example
alpha Matches uppercase or lowercase Latin alphabet characters (a-z, A-Z) {x:alpha}
bool Matches a Boolean value. {x:bool}
datetime Matches a DateTime value. {x:datetime}
decimal Matches a decimal value. {x:decimal}
double Matches a 64-bit floating-point value. {x:double}
float Matches a 32-bit floating-point value. {x:float}
guid Matches a GUID value. {x:guid}
int Matches a 32-bit integer value. {x:int}
length Matches a string with the specified length or within a specified range of lengths. {x:length(6)}  {x:length(1,20)}
long Matches a 64-bit integer value. {x:long}
max Matches an integer with a maximum value. {x:max(10)}
maxlength Matches a string with a maximum length. {x:maxlength(10)}
min Matches an integer with a minimum value. {x:min(10)}
minlength Matches a string with a minimum length. {x:minlength(10)}
range Matches an integer within a range of values. {x:range(10,50)}
regex Matches a regular expression. {x:regex(^\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}$)}

具体的可以参考

Attribute Routing in ASP.NET MVC 5

 对我来说,这样的好处是分散了路由规则的定义.有人喜欢集中,我个人比较喜欢这种灵活的处理.因为这个action定义好后,我不需要跑到配置那里定义对应的路由规则

11.最后还是不爽的话自己写个类实现 IRouteConstraint的匹配方法。

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Routing;
/// <summary>
/// If the standard constraints are not sufficient for your needs, you can define your own custom constraints by implementing the IRouteConstraint interface.
/// </summary>
public class UserAgentConstraint : IRouteConstraint
{
 
    private string requiredUserAgent;
    public UserAgentConstraint(string agentParam)
    {
        requiredUserAgent = agentParam;
    }
    public bool Match(HttpContextBase httpContext, Route route, string parameterName,
    RouteValueDictionary values, RouteDirection routeDirection)
    {
        return httpContext.Request.UserAgent != null &&
        httpContext.Request.UserAgent.Contains(requiredUserAgent);
    }
}
routes.MapRoute("ChromeRoute", "{*catchall}",
 
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" },
 
new { customConstraint = new UserAgentConstraint("Chrome") },
 
new[] { "UrlsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" });

 比如这个就用来匹配是否是用谷歌浏览器访问网页的。

12.访问本地文档

routes.RouteExistingFiles = true;
 
routes.MapRoute("DiskFile", "Content/StaticContent.html", new { controller = "Customer", action = "List", });

浏览网站,以开启 IIS Express,然后点显示所有应用程序-点击网站名称-配置(applicationhost.config)-搜索UrlRoutingModule节点

<add name="UrlRoutingModule-4.0" type="System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule" preCondition="managedHandler,runtimeVersionv4.0" />

把这个节点里的preCondition删除,变成

<add name="UrlRoutingModule-4.0" type="System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule" preCondition="" />

 13.直接访问本地资源,绕过了路由系统

routes.IgnoreRoute("Content/{filename}.html");

文件名还可以用 {filename}占位符。

IgnoreRoute方法是RouteCollection里面StopRoutingHandler类的一个实例。路由系统通过硬-编码识别这个Handler。如果这个规则匹配的话,后面的规则都无效了。 这也就是默认的路由里面routes.IgnoreRoute("{resource}.axd/{*pathInfo}");写最前面的原因。

路由测试(在测试项目的基础上,要装moq)

PM> Install-Package Moq
using System;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
using System.Web;
using Moq;
using System.Web.Routing;
using System.Reflection;
[TestClass]
public class RoutesTest
{
    private HttpContextBase CreateHttpContext(string targetUrl = null, string HttpMethod = "GET")
    {
        // create the mock request
        Mock<HttpRequestBase> mockRequest = new Mock<HttpRequestBase>();
        mockRequest.Setup(m => m.AppRelativeCurrentExecutionFilePath)
        .Returns(targetUrl);
        mockRequest.Setup(m => m.HttpMethod).Returns(HttpMethod);
        // create the mock response
        Mock<HttpResponseBase> mockResponse = new Mock<HttpResponseBase>();
        mockResponse.Setup(m => m.ApplyAppPathModifier(
        It.IsAny<string>())).Returns<string>(s => s);
        // create the mock context, using the request and response
        Mock<HttpContextBase> mockContext = new Mock<HttpContextBase>();
        mockContext.Setup(m => m.Request).Returns(mockRequest.Object);
        mockContext.Setup(m => m.Response).Returns(mockResponse.Object);
        // return the mocked context
        return mockContext.Object;
    }
 
    private void TestRouteMatch(string url, string controller, string action, object routeProperties = null, string httpMethod = "GET")
    {
        // Arrange
        RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection();
        RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes);
        // Act - process the route
        RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url, httpMethod));
        // Assert
        Assert.IsNotNull(result);
        Assert.IsTrue(TestIncomingRouteResult(result, controller, action, routeProperties));
    }
 
    private bool TestIncomingRouteResult(RouteData routeResult, string controller, string action, object propertySet = null)
    {
        Func<object, object, bool> valCompare = (v1, v2) =>
        {
            return StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase
            .Compare(v1, v2) == 0;
        };
        bool result = valCompare(routeResult.Values["controller"], controller)
        && valCompare(routeResult.Values["action"], action);
        if (propertySet != null)
        {
            PropertyInfo[] propInfo = propertySet.GetType().GetProperties();
            foreach (PropertyInfo pi in propInfo)
            {
                if (!(routeResult.Values.ContainsKey(pi.Name)
                && valCompare(routeResult.Values[pi.Name],
                pi.GetValue(propertySet, null))))
                {
                    result = false;
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    private void TestRouteFail(string url)
    {
        // Arrange
        RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection();
        RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes);
        // Act - process the route
        RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url));
        // Assert
        Assert.IsTrue(result == null || result.Route == null);
    }
 
    [TestMethod]
    public void TestIncomingRoutes()
    {
        // check for the URL that we hope to receive
        TestRouteMatch("~/Admin/Index", "Admin", "Index");
        // check that the values are being obtained from the segments
        TestRouteMatch("~/One/Two", "One", "Two");
        // ensure that too many or too few segments fails to match
        TestRouteFail("~/Admin/Index/Segment");//失败
        TestRouteFail("~/Admin");//失败
        TestRouteMatch("~/", "Home", "Index");
        TestRouteMatch("~/Customer", "Customer", "Index");
        TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List", "Customer", "List");
        TestRouteFail("~/Customer/List/All");//失败
        TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All" });
        TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All/Delete", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All", catchall = "Delete" });
        TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All/Delete/Perm", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All", catchall = "Delete/Perm" });
    }
  
}

  最后还是再推荐一下Adam Freeman写的apress.pro.asp.net.mvc.4这本书。稍微熟悉MVC的从第二部分开始读好了。前面都是入门(对我来说是扯淡)。但总比国内某些写书的人好吧——把个开源项目的源代码下载下来帖到书上面来,然后标题起个深入解析XXXX,然后净瞎扯淡。最后一千多页的巨著又诞生了。Adam Freeman的风格我就很喜欢,都是实例写作,然后还在那边书里面专门写了大量的测试。

  哎没办法啊,技术差距就是这样了。

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